American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Effect of Natural Coagulants on the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

Nowadays, the study of the natural coagulants to treat wastewater has become a growing interest to the environmental researchers around the world as its numerous advantages over chemical coagulants. In this study, the effect of banana peel powder and banana stem powder as natural coagulant on the treatment of municipal wastewater was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected from two different primary drains located near Padma garden and Bornali within Rajshahi city corporation area. The collected wastewater samples were characterized based on turbidity, pH, conductivity, TDS, TSS, TS, alkalinity, acidity and organic content and also compared with maximum permissible limits before going treatment. The worst wastewater sample was treated with varying coagulant doses, contact time, speed and pH. The effectiveness of natural coagulants was evaluated based on the percentage removal of turbidity, alkalinity and acidity. The highest removal of turbidity, alkalinity and acidity were obtained 93.5%, 67.3% and 65.5% by banana peel powder and 93.4%, 71% and 72% by banana stem powder respectively. Therefore, the result revealed that both banana peel powder and banana stem powder had capability to treat municipal wastewater as natural coagulant. Higher treatment conditions were not economically feasible because it did not significantly remove the pollutants. The removal of alkalinity and acidity indicated that it was a partial coagulation and partial adsorption process in which both materials also had high adsorption capacities.

Natural Coagulants, Coagulation, Adsorption, Banana Peel Powder, Banana Stem Powder, Turbidity, Alkalinity and Acidity

Md. Ashraful Islam, S. M. Adnan Omi, Md. Niamul Bari. (2023). Effect of Natural Coagulants on the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 7(2), 41-50.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Alshikh, O. (2007) "Parameters affecting coagulation/flocculation of drinking water under cold temperatures".
2. Alwi, H., Idris, J., Musa, M. and Hamid, K. H. K. (2013). “A preliminary study of banana stem juice as a plant-based coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater”. Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 2013, pp. 1-7, ID 165057.
3. Amran, A. H., Zaidi, N. S., Muda, K. and Loan, L. W. (2018). “Effectiveness of Natural Coagulant in Coagulation Process: A Review”. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, Vol. 7, No. 3.9, pp. 34-37.
4. Asrafuzzaman, M., Fakhruddin, A. N. M. and Hossain, M. A. (2011). “Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants”. ISRN Microbiol, Vol. 2011, pp. 1-6, ID 632189, DOI: 10.5402/2011/632189.
5. Bari, M. N., Bushra, A. and Hasan, M. M. (2018). “Treatment of Municipal Wastewater by Using Locally Available Materials as Coagulants”. 4th International Conference on Civil Engineering for Sustainable Development., ICCESD 2018, KUET, Khulna, Bangladesh, pp. 1-8, ISBN-978-984-34-3502-6.
6. BaiChuan, C. A. O., BaoYu, GAO., ChunHua, XU., Ying, FU. and Xin, LIU. (2010). “Effects of pH on coagulation behavior and floc properties in Yellow River water treatment using ferric based coagulants”. Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2010), Vol. 55, No. 14, pp. 1382−1387, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-0087-5.
7. Budd, G. C., Brinkman, D. J., Hargrove, R., and Parker, D. M. (1997). Total Optimization of Particulate Removal: Analysis of General Seasonally Intensive Treatment Attributes. Proceedings of AWWA Annual Conference, Water Quality, D: 623- 639.
8. Caldera, Y., Mendoza, I., Briceño, L., García, J. and Fuentes, L. (2007). Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds as an Alternative Coagulant in Water Purification. Boletín del centro de investigaciones biológicas, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 244-254.
9. Carvalho MS, Alves BRR, Silva MF, Bergamasco R, Coral LA, Bassetti FJ (2016).“CaCl2 applied to the extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds and the use for Microcystis aeruginosa removal”. Chem Eng J, Vol. 304, pp. 469–475.
10. Choy, S. Y., Prasad, K. M. N., Wu, T. Y., Raghunandan, M. E. and Ramanan, R. N. (2014). “Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification”. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 2178–2189, DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.09.024.
11. Clescerl L. S., Greenberg A. E. and Eaton A. D. (2001). “APHA Standards methods for the examination of water and wastewater”. 20th ed. Washington DC: American Public Health Association.
12. Díaz, J. J., Ribon, G. E. G. and Arguello, J. P. R. (2016). “Behavior of turbidity, pH, alkalinity and color in Sinú River raw water treated by natural coagulants”. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, No. 78, pp. 119-128.
13. Garde, W. K., Buchberger, S. G., Wendell, D., & Kupferle, M. J. (2017). Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 329, 102–109.
14. G. L, G. and Kani, K. M. (2016). “Accessing the Suitability of Using Banana Pith Juice as a Natural Coagulant for Textile Wastewater Treatment”. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 260-264, ISSN 2229-5518.
15. Jayalakshmi, G., Bhavya, K. D. and Saritha V. (2016). “Legitimate Use of Plant Waste Products for Drinking Water Treatment”. Journal of Environmental Research and Development, Vol. 11, No. 02, pp. 351-359, ISSN 0973 – 6921; E – ISSN 2319 – 598.
16. Kukić, D., Šćiban, M., Prodanović, J., Vasić, V., Antov, M. and Nastić, N. (2018). “Application of natural coagulants extracted from common beans for wastewater treatment”. No. 16, pp. 77-84,
17. Kumar, V., Asharuddin, S. and Othman, N. (2017). “Applications of Natural Coagulants to Treat Wastewater − A Review”. MATEC Web of Conferences matecconf, pp. 1-9, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/2011036016.
18. Maurya, S. and Daverey, A. (2018). “Evaluation of plant-based natural coagulants for municipal wastewater treatment”. Biotech, 8: 77, pp. 1-4.
19. Radzuan, R. M., Mohamed, R. M. S. R., Al-Gheethi, A. A. and Kassim, A. H. M. (2017). “Application of Natural Coagulants for Wastewater Treatment”. Integrated water resources protection, pp. 60-73, ISBN: 978-967-0764-99-3.
20. Randive, P. S., Varghese, V. P., Singh, D. P. and Badar, A. M. (2018). “Treatment of Water by using Natural Coagulant”. IJERMCE, Vol. 3, pp. 202-205, ISSN: 2456-1290.
21. Saravanan, J., Priyadharshini, D., Soundammal, A., Sudha, G. and Suriyakala, K. (2017). “Wastewater Treatment using Natural Coagulants”. SSRG – IJCE, Vol. 4, pp. 37-39, ISSN: 2348 – 8352.
22. Šćiban M, Klašnja M, Antov M. and Škrbic ́ B (2009). “Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn”. Bioresour Technol 100, pp. 6639–6643.
23. Shiklomanov. (1999). World Water Resources at the Beginning of the 21st Century, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International Hydrological Series.
24. Subashree, R., Praba, N. S. and Anusha, D. G. (2017). “Investigation of Coagulation Activity of Lemon and Banana Peel Powder in Water Treatment”. 3rd International Converence on “Recent Research Development in Environment, Social Sciences and Humanities”. pp. 46-49, ISBN: 978-93-8171-73-3.
25. Swati, M. and Govindan, V. S. (2005). “Coagulation studies on natural seed extracts”. J Indian Water Works Assoc, vol. 37 no. 2 pp. 145–149.
26. IS 2490 -Part I- (1981) Tolerance limits for industrial effluents discharged into inland surface waters. Bureau of Indian Standards.
27. Theodoro, J. D. P., Lenz, G. F., R. F Zara, R. F. and Bergamasco, R. (2013). “Coagulants and Natural Polymers: Perspectives for the Treatment of Water”. Plastic and Polymer Technology (PAPT), Vol. 2, pp. 55-62.
28. UNESCO-WWAP (2009) Water in a Changing World: The United Nations World Water Report 3, United Nations Educational, Scientifi c and Cultural Organization, World Water Assessment Programme.
29. UNESCO-WWAP (2003) Water for People Water for Life: The United Nations World Water Report, United Nations Educational, Scientifi c and Cultural Organization, World Water Assessment Programme.
30. Yang, C., Yeong, T., & Ching, J. (2014). Potential use of rice starch in coagulation – flocculation process of agro-industrial wastewater : Treatment performance and flocs characterization. Ecological Engineering, 71, 509–519.
31. Water and Sanitation Program, WSP. (2012). Benchmarking for performance improvement in urban utilities- A review in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.