Volume 1, Issue 4, November 2017, Page: 110-116
Determination of Cover-Crop Management Factor (C) for Selected Sites in Imo State Using Remote Sensing Technique and (GIS)
Okore Okay Okorafor, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Christopher Oluwakunmi Akinbile, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Adebayo Jonathan Adeyemo, Department of Crop Storage and Pest Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 19, 2017;       Accepted: Jul. 3, 2017;       Published: Aug. 1, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajese.20170104.12      View  1526      Downloads  92
Abstract
Human interference through various activities such as road construction, mineral exploration, lumbering, excavation and rural-urban migration has placed a high demand on the availability of land for agriculture and exposed croplands to extensive degradation and erosion. This study therefore aims at determining the cover-crop management factor (C) for selected sites in Imo State representing different soil groups by the use of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) tools. Satellite Images of the study area were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.1 software on a raster distribution array to generate maps for normalized differential vegetative index (NDVI), Land use land cover (LULC) and crop-cover management factor (C). From the maps generated for NDVI values for the sites were between -0.1035-0.386 and the C-factor values were between 0.33-1.34, thus placing the study area within a region of medium vegetative cover. The location with the lowest NDVI was Okigwe while the highest NDVI value was observed in Ohaji. Though the area lies within the tropical rainforest zone, the vegetation is unevenly distributed thereby creating an enabling environment for soil detachment and sediment transport through runoff from heavy downpours resulting from absence of soil surface resistance. The C-factor values obtained therefore encourages tree planting exercises, forest regeneration activities, shrub development and balanced vegetation maintenance so as to create limited soil surface to encourage soil erodibility and runoff so as to allow agricultural activities which will guarantee food security and sustainable environmental management.
Keywords
C-Factor, NDVI, Soils, Soil Erosion, RS, GIS
To cite this article
Okore Okay Okorafor, Christopher Oluwakunmi Akinbile, Adebayo Jonathan Adeyemo, Determination of Cover-Crop Management Factor (C) for Selected Sites in Imo State Using Remote Sensing Technique and (GIS), American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. Vol. 1, No. 4, 2017, pp. 110-116. doi: 10.11648/j.ajese.20170104.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
E. L. Rahman, M. A. Abd, Ali, R. R, Hussain, M. A and M. A. El-Semey. Remote Sensing and GIS based physiography and soils mapping of the Idku-Brullus Area, North Delta, Egypt: Egyptian Journal of Soil Science 49 (3): 209-432, 2009.
[2]
D. Pimentel, P. Hepperly, J. Hanson and R. Seidel. Environmental, energetic, and economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems. BioScience 55, 573-582, 2005.
[3]
H. Eswaram, R. Lal and P. F. Reich. Land degradation: an overview. In Response to Land Degradation, eds. E. M. Bridges, I. D., 2001.
[4]
N. R. Dalezious, A. Loukas and D. Bampzelis. Spatial Variability of reference Evapotranspiration in Greece. Physics and Chemistry of the earth parts A/B/C 2 (23:24):1031-1038, 2002.
[5]
A. C. Ekwe, N. N. Onu and K. M. Onuoha. Estimation of Hydraulic Characteristics from Electric Sounding data: the case of middle Imo River Basin Aquifers, South-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Spatial Hydrology 6 (2):121-132, 2009.
[6]
G. E. Ashiagor, K. Forkuo, P. Laari and R. Aabeyor,. Modelling Soil Erosion using RUSLE and GIS tools. International Journal of remote sensing and Geosciences; Vol. 2 (4):7-17, 2013.
[7]
M. N. Ezemonye and C. N Emeribe, Rainfall Erosivity in southeastern Nigeria, Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management 5 (2), 2012: 112-122.
[8]
B. Humberto and R. Lal. Principles of Soil Conservation and Management, first edition Springer publishers, 4-6pp. 2008.
[9]
B. I. Ijeh, B. I., and N. N Onu. Assessment of Pollution Levels of Groundwater In Parts of Imo River Basin, South-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 5 (4):194-202, 2013.
[10]
M. Kouli, P. Soupios and F. Vallianatos. Soil Erosion prediction using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in a GIS framework, Chania, Northwestern Crete, Greece. Environmental Geology 57 (1): 483-497, 2009.
[11]
R. A. Leonard, W. G. Knisel, and D. A. Still. GLEAMS: Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 30:1403-1418, 1987.
[12]
J. D Njoku, A. O Nnaji and M. C Iwuji. Spatial Analysis of Soil Fertility using Geographical Information System (G. I. S) Technology, African Research Review, 4 (2): 511-524, 2011.
[13]
Okorafor, N. A. A Okereke, and C. C. Egwuonwu. Evaluation of the hydropower potential of Otamiri river for Electric power generation. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 6 (24):4541-4547, 2013.
[14]
Okorafor, C. O Akinbile, A. J Adeyemo and C. C. Egwuonwu, C. C. Determination of Rainfall Erosivity Index (R) for Imo State. American Journal of Engineering Research 6 (2):13-16, 2017.
[15]
B. C. Okoro, R. A. Uzoukwu and N. M Chiemezie. River Basins of Imo State for sustainable water resource management. Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering 4 (1):1-8.2014.
[16]
P. P Panagos, Borrelli, J. Poesen, C. Ballabio, E. Lugato, K. Meusburger, L. Montanarella and C. Alewell. The new assessment of soil loss by water erosion in Europe. Environmental Science and Policy 54 (2015):438- 447, 2015.
[17]
R. J Patil and S. K Sharma. Remote Sensing and GIS based modeling of crop/cover management factor (C) of RUSLE in Shakkar river watershed. International Conference on Chemical, Agricultural and Medical Services, (CAMS-2013), Dec. 29-30, 2013 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2013.
[18]
D. Pimentel. Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Environment, Development and Sustainability 8 (1):119-137, 2006.
[19]
S. D. Angima, D. E Stott, M. K O’Neil, C. K Ong and G. A. Weesies. Soil erosion prediction using RUSLE for central Kenyan highland conditions for Agriculture, Ecosys and Environ 97: 295–308. 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809 (03) 00011-2
[20]
V. Prasannakumar, H. Vijith., S. Abinod and N. Geetha. Estimation of soil erosion risk within a small mountainous sub-watershed in Kerala, India, using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and geo-information technology. Geoscience Frontiers 3 (2), 209-215, 2012.
[21]
K. Ahmet. Estimation of C factor for soil erosion modeling using NDVI in Buyukcekmece Watershed. Ozean Journal of Applied Science 3 (1):1-4, (2010).
[22]
K. G. Renard, G. R. Foster, G. A. Weesies, D. McCool, D. C. Yoder, D. C. Predicting Soil Erosion by water: A guide to Conservation Planning with the Revised Universal Soil loss equation (RUSLE). USDA, Agriculture Handbook No. 703, Washington DC, 1997.
[23]
K. G. Renard, G. R Foster, G. A. Weesis and D. K. McCool. Predicting soil erosion by water a guide to conservation planning with the RUSLE agricultural Handbook 703. US government Print Office Washington DC, 1996.
[24]
J. C. Ritchie, D. E. Walling and J. Peters. Application of geographic information systems and remote sensing for quantifying patterns of erosion and water quality. Hydrological Processes 17: 885-886, 2003.
[25]
A. O. Selemo, Ananaba, S. E, Nwagbara, J. O, Egejuru, V. E and V. Nwugha, Geostatistical Analysis of Rainfall Temperature and evaporation Data of Owerri for Ten years. Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2012 (2) 195-205, 2012.
[26]
R. Suresh, Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, 4th Edition Standard Publishers Distributors: New Dehli 2012.
[27]
U. P. Udoka, G. I. Nwankwor, C. A. Ahiarakwem, A. I. Opara, T. T. Emberga, G. E. Inyang. Morphometric Analysis of Sub- watersheds in Oguta and Environs, Southeastern Nigeria Using GIS and Remote Sensing Data. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2016, 4 (2), 21-28, 2016.
[28]
J. M. Van der Knijff, R. J. A. Jones and L. Montanarella. Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Europe. Office for Official publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg pp. 34-35, 2000.
[29]
H. P. Vishvam, P. L Pradeep and P. Indra. Estimation of runoff and soil erosion for Vishwamitri River wastershed western India using RS and GIS. American Journal of Water Science and Engineering 1 (2):7-14, 2015.
[30]
W. H. Wischmeier, and D. D Smith. Predicting rainfall erosion losses — A guide to conservation planning: United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Handbook, 537. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D. C., USA, 1978.
[31]
D. A. Woolhiser, R. E. Smith, and D. C. Goodrich. KINEROS, A kinematic runoff and erosion model: Documentation and User Manual. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, ARS-77, 130, 1990.
[32]
P. Zhou, O. Luukkanen, T. Tokola and J. Nieminen. Effect of vegetation cover on soil erosion in a mountainous watershed. Catena 75 (3), 319-325, 2008
Browse journals by subject